of communication among primitive men included speech and gesture,
drawings, and various kinds of drums and signal fires for
relaying messages over long distances.
in the Altamira Caverns, Spain. The drawing is from the Stone
American Museum of Natural History
In Africa man
fashioned drums from hollow logs to send messages over long
The Bettmann Archive
Indian used smoke signals as a means of communication. The
painting is by Frederic Remington (1861-1909).
Amon Carter Museum
From prehistoric times,
man has transferred information to his fellow man in one form or another.
At first it was done by a simple animal-like guttural sound. Later came
speech, song, hand signs, and crude writings on wood and stone. To
relate incidents of the day, the simple drawing of an animal on the wall
of a cave was sufficient; to perpetuate knowledge, these drawings became
Perhaps the earliest
known method of communicating over any distance beyond the range of the
human voice was the signal fire. By simply putting a torch to a pile of
leaves or dried wood, tribes could recall their hunters or transmit
other bits of information over appreciable distances. The signal fire,
although one of the first means of overland communications, was also one
of the last to succumb to the modern advances of the electrical era.
According to the text,
the ancient times man has been able to communicate both with animals and
even animals are able to communicate why wouldn't humans?
c) in one
way or another the prehistoric man was able to communicate with his
transferred information from one person to another was called
"communication" in prehistoric times.
modern man is beginning to study and wholly understand the communication
among his prehistoric mates.
You can conclude from the text that,
a rudimentary form of communication, the next step was speech.
was one of the first manifestation of communication in ancient times.
writing on stone soon disappearead as a means of communication.
and signs were surely the most important ways to perpetuate knowledge.
signal fire was the first way the ancient people used to communicate
with their families.
Maybe the earliest method of communicating over any distance consisted
drawing pictures on stone walls.
putting a torch to a group of hunters.
transmitting bits of unnecessary information.
lowering the human voice.
setting fire to dried wood.
Emperor of Brazil (1831-89).
The Bettmann Archive
Pedro II (1825-91),
Emperor of Brazil (1831-89). Only five years old when his father
abdicated the Brazilian throne and returned to Portugal, Dom Pedro was
for nine years under the tutelage of strict educators while the
government was in the inept hands of a regency. Threats to order and
unity and increasing popular dissatisfaction with the situation led to
the assumption by Pedro of the throne in July, 1840; he was formally
crowned a year later.
Pedro II was deeply
patriotic and conscientious in his rule. In general it was a time of
great progress and prosperity for Brazil. Pedro ruled firmly, even at
times arbitrarily, but his exercise of the "moderative power"
given him by the constitution of 1824 was usually wise and beneficent.
The 1840's were devoted largely to consolidation of his power and
suppression of disorders. The next two decades were characterized
by numerous disputes with foreign states, and the 1870's and 1880's
witnessed growth of republican and liberal ideas.
One of the principal
problems Pedro faced was that of slavery, a deeply rooted institution in
Brazil. Difficulties with Great Britain arose in the 1840's over that
government's pressure on Brazil to end the slave trade. Especially after
the end of the Civil War in the United States, agitation for ending
slavery in Brazil increased and various laws were passed to terminate it
Between 1864 and 1870
Pedro, allied with Argentina and Uruguay, carried on a major war against
Paraguay under Francisco Solano López. He also had diplomatic or
territorial difficulties with other states, including Uruguay, the
United States, and Argentina. Pedro traveled widely in Europe and made a
well-publicized visit to the United States at the time of the
Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876.
The Brazilian economy
expanded rapidly under Pedro. Railway and factory building developed
markedly, and coffee production and foreign trade were stimulated. Pedro
was deeply interested in educational and scientific advancement for
Brazil. Growing republican sentiment, however, and conflicts with
various powerful interests — landowners, the church, the army, and
others — led to a revolution in Nov., 1889, after which Pedro
peacefully retired to Portugal.
According to the text, Pedro II
at the age of 58.
in Portugal from 1825 to 1891.
crowned in 1840.
Emperor of Brazil for 58 years.
Emperor of Brazil for 9 years.
Which of the following can't be associated to Pedro II?
of the economy
"The next two decades" refer to the
1850's and 1860's
Pedro II most likely retired to Portugal in
Which of the following statements concerning Pedro II is untrue?
with Paraguay and Argentina against Uruguay.
b) had to
face the problem of slavery in Brazil.
c) had to
face Great Britain's pressure to stop slave trade.
traveled to the U.S.A. and Europe.
e) had a
lot of interest in Brazil's scientific development.
for the train can make you hungry, and not only for food. At
London's South Kensington station, commuters unsatisfied by candy can
snack on literature instead. For $2, platform vending machines pop out
leaflets bearing your choice of poetry (Marvell, Pushkin, Shakespeare)
or short stories (Arthur Conan Doyle, P.G. Wodehouse, Evelyn Waugh).
Travelman, a publishing firm founded by Waugh's grandson Alexander,
plans to install similar machines at 30 other Underground stations.
Which of the following best completes the sentence "... not only
a) so for
for news instead
therefore for newspapers also
however for books, too
also for reading
Who are the commuters mentioned in the text?
people who depend on Underground trains in South Kensington.
people who have lunch at subway stations.
people who travel to and from work.
who leave their cars at the outskirts of London.
people who don't have money enough to spend on transportation every day.
aqui e confira a resolução comentada.
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